Function and meaning
Kraters were used for mixage wine with vaso at verso symposium (a drinking ricevimento for upper class men). Since ancient Greeks only drank wine diluted with vaso, kraters were crucial esatto the symposium, and were set up sopra the middle of the room where partygoers drank. The interior of the Francois Vase has scratches which may have been made by verso utensil mixing the wine, but it is unclear whether the vase was used at symposia durante Greece, mediante Etruria (Italy), or con both places. It may have been used at lavish parties con Athens, or mediante per funerary banquet honoring the deceased mediante Etruria before it was buried as per insopportabile offering.
Wealthy, educated individuals attending banquets sopra either place would have recognized the scenes shown on the vase, and might have used them as discussion starters. Other vessels used at symposia in the Archaic period were also commonly painted with mythological scenes and could have served verso similar purpose, but the sheer number of scenes on the Francois Vase may have made it particularly intriguing esatto the banqueters https://datingranking.net/it/flirt-review/ who used it. They may have even understood the images onesto be relevant preciso their own lives. While the pictures had different meanings for different viewers, the scenes of drinking on the Francois Vase mirror the circumstances per which it was actually used. Moreover, many of the scenes on the vessel represent ideal aristocratic activities that the drinkers likely participated durante, including noble marriage, successful hunts, and military combat.
Most Greek men spent some of their lives serving their cities at war, defeating enemies much like the heroes painted on this vase. Like Peleus, Greek men were expected to marry and raise their children to be productive citizens. It seems that Kleitias and Ergotimos purposefully designed the decoration esatto appeal preciso the prosperous owners of the vase, who could recognize and relate to the stories it told.
On September 9, 1900 verso museum guard, per per fit of rage, threw a chair at the case containing the Francois Vase, shattering it into 638 pieces. The museum director, Luigi Milani asked Pietro Zei sicuro undertake the conservation of the Francois Vase. Conservation took two years.
Jasper Gaunt, Ergotimos Epoiesen: The Potter’s Contribution preciso the Francois Vase,” con The Francois Vase: New Perspectives, di nuovo. H. Alan Shapiro, Mario Iozzo, and Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter (Zurich: Akanthus, 2013), p. 81
Mario Iozzo, “The Francois Vase: Notes on Technical Aspects and Functions,” mediante The Francois Vase: New Perspectives, addirittura. H. Alan Shapiro, Mario Iozzo, and Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter, (Zurich: Akanthus, 2013), p. 61
Cornelia Isler-Kerenyi, “Der Francois-Krater zwischen Athen und Chiusi,” mediante Athenian Potters and Painters: The Conference Proceedings, ancora. John H. Oakley, William D. Addirittura. Coulson, and Olga Palagia, (Oxford: Oxbow, 1997), p. 523–539
Guy Hedreen, “Bild, Mythos, and Ritual: Choral Dance mediante Theseus’s Cretan Adventure on the Francois Vase,” Hesperia, vol. 80, no. 3 (2011), p. 491–510.
Cornelia Isler-Kerenyi, “Der Francois-Krater zwischen Athen und Chiusi,” in Athenian Potters and Painters: The Conference Proceedings, ed. John H. Oakley, William D. Addirittura. Coulson, and Olga Palagia, (Oxford: Oxbow, 1997), p. 523–539.
Detail with wedding procession with Hera and her husband Zeus durante per chariot (left), Urania the muse of astronomy, and Kaliope, muse of epic poetry (center)
Per adjonction sicuro these narrative scenes, another register at the bottom of the vase shows animals fighting. These images may relate preciso the ferocity of the heroes shown on the vase, who are described metaphorically as predatory animals by Homer. Verso comic scene of pygmies (a tribe of small people durante Greek mythology) battling cranes decorates the foot of the vase, providing verso light counterpoint puro the rest of the imagery. The paint on the foot is reddish durante color instead of black because the vase was misfired con the kiln, as sometimes happened sopra ancient Greek ceramic production.